Posts tagged ‘Order of St. Lazarus’

Further on the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem


I have written before about the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem several times and my personal opinion on their status is on public display right here on this blog. Since writing that original article I have been contacted over the years by many individuals that are members of the various factions of the group. Some have been unchivalrous but most have been very kind in their communications. All, however, tried to prove that the particular Lazarite faction they belong to is legitimate and some even tried to recruit me!

In any case, I have decided to put together a quick reference guide in response to some of the most common arguments presented by the Lazarite supporters.

Fons Honorum

The fundamental requirement for any chivalric order is to have a fount of honor (fons honorum) backing it up. The requirement exists because the chivalric order is a conferral of a distinct kind of honor that elevates the recipient. Such an honor can be granted solely by one that has the capacity to do so, in other words a source for the honors. In practical terms, this means that founts of honor are:

  • Regnant Monarchs of Sovereign States. Examples are the King of Spain, the King of the Belgians, etc.
  • The Head of State of a Republic of a Sovereign State. Examples are the President of the USA, the President of the Hellenic Republic, etc.
  • Heads of formerly regnant Sovereign Houses. Examples are the Royal House of Portugal, the Imperial House of Russia, etc.
  • The 5 Ancient Apostolic Sees of the Christian Church:
    • Holy See of Rome, in the person of the Pope. Note: The sovereignty of the person of the Pope is through the recognition of the sovereignty of the Holy See and not that of the Vatican City State
    • Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, in the person of the Ecumenical Patriarch. Note: beyond the Apostolic See, he is also co-sovereign of the State of Mt. Athos
    • Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, in the person of its Patriarch
    • Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch, in the person of its Patriarch
    • Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, in the person of the Pope & Patriarch of Alexandria
    • Note: Though not widely known in the Roman Catholic and Protestant West, the Greek Orthodox Patriarchates are considered sovereign in their own right, particularly the Ecumenical Patriarchate, based on the same principles as those of the Holy See only in a different geographical area.

There is also the unique case of an Order being in itself sovereign: The Sovereign Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Rhodes, and Malta. They are today known simply as the Order of Malta or SMOM.

So, let’s examine the Order of St. Lazarus today and their main factions starting with the “Paris-Malta Obedience”, generally referred to as the “Spanish Branch”.

The “Spanish Branch” is currently headed up by its Grand Master Don Carlos Gereda y de Borbón, de jure uxoris Marquis de Almazán. However, he is not a fount of honor and cannot confer honors. Now, if the Order of St. Lazarus were placed under the Spanish Crown, it would become a Spanish Royal Order and effectively a new creation.

I should also note that Francisco de Borbón y de La Torre, de jure uxoris Duke of Seville, under whose Grand Magistry the Order of St. Lazarus was allegedly reconstituted in 1930 (after deciding in 1910 that they are to be governed by its knights without the need of a temporal protector), was also not a fount of honor.

The other main faction is known as the “Orléans Obedience“, under the Royal House of France (Orléans). This one would be considered as a legitimate and valid chivalric order since the Royal House of France is indeed a fount of honor. One can even argue that it would be a sort of revival of the ancient Order that was merged with the Order of Mt. Carmel by the French Crown in the 17th century. However, in a statement made by Henri, Count of Paris & Duke of France, on January 31, 2014 in his capacity as Head of Royal House of France (Orléans) the temporal protection of any group named as “Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem” has been rescinded since Easter 2012. I am including an image of the declaration from the website.

Statement by Count of Paris regarding the Order of St. Lazarus

This means that today, there is absolutely no group with the Lazarite name that has any sort of fons honorum to back it up.

Recognition by the Spanish Crown or any other State

This has been brought up so many times that it never ceases to amaze me how some people just don’t understand what they’re saying. Having a registered legal entity in any jurisdiction does not mean State recognition. It simply means that the proper paperwork was filed and the fees paid to set up a corporation (for-profit or non-profit). Nothing more and nothing less.

Then there are the examples brought forward of certain States, for example the Republic of Hungary, thanking or in some other way acknowledging the Order for something. This is interpreted as recognizing the Order as being a valid Chivalric Order. It’s not. This is the same sort of acknowledgement given to such organizations as the Red Cross, Médecins Sans Frontières, etc. and using the name the group uses for itself. It does not mean anything else.

However, let’s hypothetically accept that the group is recognized by a sovereign State. What exactly is being recognized? Is the Order of St. Lazarus claiming to be a sovereign entity in its own right like the Order of Malta? Is the Order of St. Lazarus being recognized as an Order of the sovereign State doing the recognition? What exactly is being recognized other than there exists a group that calls itself “Order of St. Lazarus”?

Finally, many insist that by having Carlos Gereda y de Borbón, de jure uxoris Marquis de Almazán, as the Grand Master of the Paris-Malta Obedience it means that the Royal House of Spain approves the Order. This is a preposterous claim! Carlos Gereda y de Borbón is the 6th cousin once removed on his mother’s side of HM King Felipe VI of Spain, not exactly a close relative.

Protection by the Melkite Patriarch

The Melkite Patriarch has repeatedly confirmed his protection of the Order of St. Lazarus and its various factions. Nobody can dispute this fact. However, this does not make the order anything more than an ecclesiastical honor for the simple reason that the Melkite Patriarch is not a fount of honor and is subordinate to the Roman Pontiff. The Melkite Patriarch has asserted that he is “equal” to the Bishop of Rome but, it is patently clear that is not the case:

  • The Melkite Patriarch has accepted Roman Supremacy and being fully subordinate to the Holy See of Rome
  • Pope Gregory XVI granted Patriarch Maximos III Mazloum the titles of “Patriarch of Alexandria and Jerusalem” in 1838, an action no typically done to one’s equal.
  • In around 1891/2, during Melkite Patriarch Gregory II Youssef’s visit to Rome he was forced to the floor in front of Pope Pius IX and the latter placed his foot on the Patriarch’s head, reminding him of his place.[1][2] The Melkite Patriarch continues to this day to be subordinate to Rome.

This protection is also referenced to cover the gap in the Order of St. Lazarus from 1830 when the Royal House of France decreed it no longer offers its protection to either 1910 (when the Order of St. Lazarus decided it no longer needed a fons honorum) or 2004 (when the Orleans branch of the Royal House of France granted temporal protection, rescinded Easter 2012). It should also be noted that there really isn’t any documentation to cover the period between 1830 to 1910 and much of what is claimed about the period is based on interpretations of insignia seen in paintings that resemble (under certain angles, lighting, and discoloration assumptions) those of the Order of St. Lazarus (maybe).

Finally, support and/or protection of a bishop or archbishop or even the head of a particular Church that makes up the Roman Catholic Church does not grant a group any status above that of ecclesiastical decoration for the simple reason that the fons honorum is not present.

  1. Zoghby, Elias (1998). Ecumenical Reflections. Fairfax, VA.: Eastern Christian Publications. p. 83. ISBN 1-892278-06-5.
  2. Parry, Ken; David Melling (editors) (1999). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA.: Blackwell Publishing. p. 313. ISBN 0-631-23203-6.

VIP Membership

Another argument put forward to support the legitimacy of the Lazarite groups is the very impressive list of members they have. Nobody can argue that having Grandees of Spain, Flag Officers of the Military, Peers of the UK, and Bishops is not a big deal; it definitely is. However, regardless of the length and breadth of the VIP member list, it does not make it a chivalric order. It makes it a great club for networking but not an order of chivalry.


Closing remarks

In closing this article, I will repeat what I have said many times before. Most of the Lazarite groups do amazingly good charity work, moreso than many legitimate chivalric order or even NGOs. I am first to recognize this work and commend them for that; they surely deserve congratulations and admiration for that work. However, they could do that same work without the trappings of a chivalric order and losing their credibility.


Heraldic privileges of Knights of the Order of St. Lazarus of the Grand Priory of Spain

Learning from the excellent publication of the Grand Priory of Spain of the Order of St. Lazarus I wrote about the other day, I decided to publish a concise list of heraldic privileges of the knights of the Order.

There are specific regulations that are applicable based on the rank as well as the specific office held by the knight.

Before going into the details, there are some rules that are applicable to all:

All knights may display the arms of the Order in either a chief or a canton. The arms of the Order are: Argent a cross Vert.

All knights may lay their shield on the cross of the order (a maltese cross vert).

Specific to the rank of the knight, the rules are:

  • Knights: May suspend the insignia of the order from the bottom of their shield
  • Commanders: May suspend the insignia from the flanks of their shield
  • Grand Crosses: May have their shield encircled with the insignia
  • Collared: Those who are either Grand Collars or have a collar of office may encircled their shield with the collar they are entitled too.

Specific to the office the knight may hold, the rules are:

  • Grand Masters: May quarter the arms of the Order with their personal arms. They may display two scepters in saltire behind their shield
  • Chancellors: May display a sword in pale behind their shield
  • Heads of a Grand Chapter: May display a scepter in pale behind their shield
  • Judges of Arms: May display a baton of office in pale and surmount their shield with the coronet of a king of arms
  • Grand Marshals: May display two batons of office in saltire behind their shields
  • Grand Auditors: May display a gold key in pale behind their shields
  • Grand Treasurers: May display two gold keys in saltire behind their shields
  • Grand Referendaries: May display a sword and a baton of office in saltire behind their shields
  • Coadjutors: May display a scepter and baton office in saltire behind their shields

All high dignitaries and members of the Council have the additional right to display their arms in the pavillion of the Order. The pavillion is black, to denote the loss of the holy land to the muslims, and is charged with the cross of the order on the sinister side. The pavillion is surmounted with a closed eastern crown, showing the founding of the Order in the east.



  • Images by Fernando Martínez Larrañaga and Wikipedia
  • I am not affiliated in any way with the Order of St. Lazarus

General Levashov – A Knight of the Order of St. Lazarus?

COA Portadei

On April 12 2011 the blog Blog de Heráldica, maintained by Maj. José Juan Carrión Rangel, published an article written by Dr. José María de Montells y Galán, Viscount Portadei and Chief Herald of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. The article, in Spanish of course, presented a hypothesis by the Viscount regarding a General of the Imperial Russian Army from the 19th century and his probable membership in the Order of St. Lazarus.

Personally, I found this essay to be very interesting as it relates to the history of an organization that has a commendable track record with its humanitarian efforts. Though there has been (and there still is) some controversy regarding the Order’s historical continuity, their truly remarkable charitable work cannot be denied.

Dr. Montells y Galán has graciously allowed me to translate his original article and have it published here for those English speakers that are interested.

It is very well known that the supporters of the claim that the Order of St. Lazarus is extinct, place the year of said extinction in 1831. Even though they base their claim on the French Restoration and after Louis XVII’s return in 1814, he resigned as Grand Master and became Protector of the Order, conforming with his dynastic rights.

Louis XVIII used the insignia of the Order until the end of his life, though he abstained from admitting new Knights. Neither did his successor, Charles X admitted anyone but, during his reign new Knights appear in the Almanaque Real, authorized by the General Chapter of the Order. This royal tolerance of the admissions appear to give credence to the position that the Knight of the Order had the right to perpetuate the Hospital of the Green Cross.

Many of the Order’s detractors interpret an edict of 1824, that is literally referring to the united Orders of St. Lazarus and Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, saying that “admissions have not been made since 1788 allowing its extinction” as proof of the royal decision to abolish the Lazarite Order. What is not said, is that the aforementioned edict is uniquely and exclusively referring to the Order of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, reunited with St. Lazarus and not united, and that had ceased to be given out since the closing of the École Militaire in 1788.1

The known expert on Chivalric Orders, Mr. Guy Stair Sainty, proponent of the extinction of the Order, argues: “Indeed, the complete absence of any contemporary documentation such as diplomas or letters of nomination (whereas there are numerous examples from before 1788), of paintings (or later of original nineteenth century photographs) of these individuals wearing the Saint Lazarus Cross, or of any record in contemporary correspondence of such nominations or admissions, is astonishing.”2

In other words: For those that believe that the Order of St. Lazarus became extinct in 1875 with the death of the Viscount of Chabot, last Knight of the Order to be alive in 1831, everything began in 1788 when, according to them, it ceased to be given.3

Therefore you can imagine my surprise when, while browsing the web, I found an image of, what appears to be, an officer of the Russian Hussars with the Cross of Justice of the Order of St. Lazarus worn as a neck decoration. To positively identify him, I reached out to various friends without much success until Alfonso Floresta suggested the name “Vasily Vasilievich Levashov”.

Born in 1783 of a noble family, though illegitimate, he took part in the war against the French in 1805 as Captain of the Imperial Guard. After intervening in the battles of Pułtusk, Yankov, Landsberg, Eylau, Dobre Miasto (Guttstadt) and Passengeyme, he was promoted to Colonel.4

Levashov takes part in the Patriotic War of 1812 as Colonel of the Cuirassiers no 5 in the battles of Vitebsk, Smolensk, Borodino, Tarutino and Maloyaroslavets, receiving on November 21 1812 the Order of St. George for his heroic acts in Borodino, replacing Col. Karl Levenwolde, who had died in combat, in charge of the Regiment of Cavalry Guards.5 Promoted to General, he joined the battles of Lützen, Bautzen and Dresden suffering a sabre wound in Leipzig and later a gunshot to the chest.

On July 15, 1813 he was named Chief of the Regiment of Cuirassiers of the Imperial Guard of Novgorod. In 1817, we find him as an Aide to the Czar. Between April 25, 1815 and May 23, 1822 he served as the Commander in Chief of the Regiment of Hussars of the Guard. Later, he was appointed by the Emperor as the military governor of Kiev and Governor General of Podolia and Volynia. In 1833, the nobiliary title of Count of the Russian Empire was conferred upon him. A year before his death, he was named Presiden of the Counsil of State and member of the Committe of Ministers. He was buried in 1848 in the Dukhovskoi church of the Monastery of St. Alexander Nevsky in St. Petersburg.

There is also another painting of the General Count Levashov, very similar to the one shown above but, with a difference in the decorations. This painting is conserved in the gallery of the Heroes of the War of 1812 in the Imperial Palace of St. Petersburg and was created by the English artist George Dawe. From the painting, one can see that the Count was Knight of St. Vladimir (2nd class), St. Ana (1st class), St. George (4th class). He is also depicted bearing the medal of the campaign of 1812 as well as those of foreign campaigns unknown to me. According to my sources, this painting is located in the Kremlin of Novgorod but I have been unable to conclusively find out who is its creator.

It is very well known that thanks to the hospitality of the Czar Paul I, the Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus King Louis XVIII, in exile in Mitau, Lithuania, admitted into the Order sometime between 1798 and 1800 the Czar himself, his sons the Grand Dukes Alexander, the Charevich, Constantine and another twenty Russian dignitaries. Among those were the Count Rostopchin and the Barons Fersen and Dreisen.6

Unfortunately, the complete list of Knights admitted in Mitau by the Grand Master has not survived. Examining the information, it does not seem far fetched that General Levashov was one of them. He was probably assigned to the entourage of the small court of the exiled King, perhaps as a junior officer or page. In 1800, Levashov would have been 17 years old, the age that cadets in France would be awarded the Order of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel.

What is without doubt is that Levashov is depicted with an unusual insignia of St. Lazarus. The eight-pointed green cross of the time was on the clothing. However, there are several surviving examples of reusing the Maltese cross, only in green. Even more so in Russia where the Order of Malta was liberally being given out by the Czar. In any case (as all this is just a hypothesis), judging by the painting in Nevgorod, the General Count Levashov was a proud Knight of the Order of St. Lazarus.




  1. The insignia of the Order of Mt. Carmel, separately from that of St. Lazarus, were given to three noble cadets annually.
  2. From Guy Stair Sainty’s page on the Order of St. Lazarus ( In this case, he frequently neglects to bring up the political happenings in France during the period in question, that made it necessary to move the archives of the Order to Damascus, the seat of the Melkite Patriarch.
  3. These dates are important because, as the detractors say, an Order that has been inactive for 100 years becomes extinct. What is certain is that in 1841, the Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem, Maximos III Michael Mazloum, accepted the spiritual protection of the Hospital of St. Lazarus. Just 10 years after the supposed suppression!
  4. On November 5, 1808
  5. The Grand Master of the Order of Malta, at the time the Czar of Russia, was assigned to the Regiment of Cavalry Guards. All within the regiment were noble, even the foot-soldiers.
  6. According to Stair Sainty, Dreisen was admitted by the Grand Master in Mitau in 1800 as a Knight of Honor, a rank that was not in the statutes enacted by the Grand Master himself. From this, he infers that the Russian appointments are null or suspect.

As the Viscount points out above, this is a hypothesis and has not been proved yet. But, as with most research, you’ve got to start somewhere and this lead seems to be promising.

However, as Arturo Rodríguez López-Abadía points out in a follow up to this essay on the same Spanish blog, the neck decoration may very well be the Prussian Pour le Mérite medal that has a similar design and whose blue color might be made to appear green in a painting with shading.

Pour le Mérite

However, and here is where the plot thickens, there is another painting (found by Carlos Cerda Acevedo) of a different Russian General, Vasily D. Rykov, that appears to be wearing the breast cross of the Order of St. Lazarus. The argument that this is the Grand Cross of the the Prussian Order is invalid because, very simply, the class of “Grand Cross” was established in 1866 whereas General Rykov died in 1827

In addition to the above, the following information (relayed to me in a separate email and originating from Dr. Alfonso Ceballos-Escalera, III Marques de La Floresta) is worthy to be noted:

  • In the private collection of the Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, Head of the Imperial House of Russia, are found the Lazarite insignia of her parents, the Grand Duke Vladimir and the Grand Duchess Leonida.
  • In the collection of foreign decorations of the Czar Paul I kept in the Kremlin, one would find two medals of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Lazarus
  • The certificates and letters patent for the Russian members are conserved in St. Petersburg. Within this collection, there are documents that show that King Louis XVIII while exiled in Mitau (present day Jelgava in Latvia), had conferred upon Czar Paul I the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Lazarus. Additionally, there are more than two dozen additional certificates for the Czar to distribute among his generals and courtiers.


The link to the original article is:
The official international site of the Order of St. Lazarus is:
The official site of the Order of St. Lazarus in the United States is:

Link to an article where I write about my personal opinion on the group


I am not a member of the Order of St. Lazarus
Images provided by Dr. José María de Montells y Galán, Viscount Portadei and from Wikipedia

Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem

lazarus_crossLazarus Cross

There has been much talk about the Order of St. Lazarus (OSLJ) recently and though my personal opinion on the Order has already been published elsewhere on the excellent blog “Blog de Heráldica” maintained by my friend Maj. José Juan Carrión Rangel, I felt I should expand upon it here (this *is* my blog after all 🙂 ).

The OSLJ presents itself as an Order of Nobility that continues the traditions of the ancient crusader Order of Saint Lazarus. Critics claim that the OSLJ is a self styled Order and it is no way, shape or form a nobiliary corporation.

There are many sources one can look to for the Order’s history, including the Catholic Encyclopedia, the research done by Guy Stair Sainty, the organization’s own site and, of course, Wikipedia.

I won’t try to go through the history of the Order, though you are welcome to read through the links above yourself.

One thing that will become evident is that the French Revolution of 1789 really muddied the waters. This is when the accounts of the Order and those of its critics diverge. The official history of the OSLJ claims that new members were admitted by the King of France in exile while critics point to a statement by the Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor from 1824 where the text reads “…Orders of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem and Our Lady of Mount Carmel united…this last has not been awarded since 1788 and is to be allowed to become extinct“. (Note that the OSLJ and Our Lady of Mount Carmel had been united in 1608)

Order of St. Lazarus and of Our Lady of CarmelOrder of St. Lazarus and of Our Lady of Carmel

Furthermore, critics claim that as the provisions of Canon Law state that an Order becomes extinct 100 years after the death of its last member and the last member died in 1857, the Order formally became extinct in 1957.

Of course, what has been mentioned above is the story of the “renegade” Lazarites in France, under the Commandery of Boigny.

In 1572, Pope Gregory XIII had united the Sicilian branch to the Crown of Savoy. The reigning head of the House, Philibert III, decided to unite this order with his House’s existing Order of St. Maurice (founded in 1434). Henceforth, the name of the united order became the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus. This Order is still awarded today as a dynastic Order by the House of Savoy.

OSSML CommanderInsignia of a Commander of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus

Critics who assert that the French Order of Lazarus ceased to exist practically in 1857 and formally in 1957, acknowledge that the Savoian Order is the legitimate successor of the ancient Order of St. Lazarus.

To continue, though, with the modern Order of St. Lazarus, let’s examine some more information.

In the 1830s, it is claimed that since the Order no longer had a protector, a new one was sought in the Melchite-Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch (not to be confused with the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch).

It is said that in 1841, the Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch Maximos III accepted for himself and his successors to be the Spiritual Protector of the Order.

Though critics question this original acceptance, subsequent Patriarchs have acknowledged this role of theirs in published statements. Personally, I am willing to accept the claim that the OSLJ is under the Spiritual Protection of the Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch.

However, now we reach the crux of the issue with the OSLJ.

As with all Orders of Knighthood, one must determine whether a valid fons honorum is covering the Order. In other words, who is the Temporal Protector of the Order?

Catholic Orders have the Pope as the fons honorum, others have either reigning or previously reigning heads of state. For example, the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem is under the currently reigning monarch of the UK, HM Queen Elizabeth II. Another example is the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus that is under the previously reigning House of Savoy. Both completely valid and unquestionably valid Orders.

However, who is the fons honorum for the OSLJ?

The Melchite Greek Patriarch is in communion with the Pope and thus under the latter’s jurisdiction and subordination. Additionally, Patriarchs (both Catholic and Orthodox) have never acted or considered as sovereigns nor did they ever have temporal powers. At most, during the Ottoman occupation, they had some civil powers over their flock but, it was equivalent to a ministerial position.

It is my opinion that the modern OSLJ is indeed lacking a valid fons honorum to claim nobiliary status. At most, I would consider it a church award given by the Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.

Having said that, let’s examine the Order as it is today beyond the claim to nobility.

The Order counts amongst its knights members of ancient nobiliary houses of Europe, including Grandees of Spain. Additionally, the Patron of the Order in Spain is none other than the Cardinal Primate of Spain, the Archbishop of Toledo.

Despite the criticism it has received, it has been accepted as a legitimate Order of Chivalry in several countries and its decorations are allowed to be displayed alongside those of other Orders and military awards.

The OSLJ truly believes in its hospitaller mission and has a very much respected humanitarian role. The Order’s work has been acknowledged by the European Union parliament, where funds were entrusted to the OSLJ to manage aid in Easter Europe. Also, perhaps ironically, Pope John Paul II welcomed knights of the OSLJ in their full regalia to his palace in Rome in recognition of their work in Poland. However, once again, the Pope did not extend his acknowledgment of the Order.

Finally, from what I have seen, the Order comports itself in the spirit of traditional chivalry and try to maintain its alleged roots. The knights of the Order try to be examples in their communities and to represent the OSLJ in the best possible way.

OSLJ OfficerInsignia of an officer of the Order of St. Lazarus

To summarize my opinion, I don’t consider the OSLJ to either be the actual successor of the ancient Order nor does it have a fons honorum; but, I consider them to act in a more chivalrous way than some of those “legitimate” Orders. Therefore, I see it as complete irony for those who claim to be true knights to treat the OSLJ in the most unchivalrous of behaviors.

The OSLJ deserves our respect, if nothing else, for its proven, hands-on humanitarian work.

Whether the Order of St. Lazarus truly is a “legitimate” Order of Chivalry or not, is up to you as this post only represents my own opinion.

The website of the modern Order of St. Lazarus is:
The website of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus is:

See also: Further on the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem

Note: Images courtesy of Wikipedia and Morton & Eden Ltd.